Ferghana Valley. Pearl deposit of Uzbekistan.

Ferghana Valley is considered to be a unique and relict site in Central Asia. Nearly completely closed by mountains, a vast tectonic depression in shape which resembles an ellipse, has an area of more than 22 thousand square kilometers and lies at an altitude of 300 meters in the west and up to 1000 meters in the east towards to a sea level. Surrounded by mountains of Tien Shan and the Hissar-Alai Range, only in the west it has a narrow passage (which is now occupied by Karakkum reservoir), that leads to the Hunger Steppe.
The height of mountain ranges, which like the guards stand up at the boundaries of the Ferghana valley is up to 6 thousand miles in some places.
Two major waterways (the Syr Darya and Naryn) crossing this land of plenty and many creeks that feed on snow and glaciers of the Alai Range, are in a hurry to share the life-giving moisture with a beautiful oasis. Nature generously endowed this region. Ferghana Valley is able to boast with all kinds of landscapes, from semi-desert, riparian systems, and cultural farming on the plains, up to alpine meadows and snow caps the mountain peaks.
It is the namely place where the mildest climate in Uzbekistan is used to be. An average July temperature ranges from + 23 to +28 degrees Celsius and January from - 1 to -2.5 degrees. After a brief winter, cherry, peach, plum, apricot trees are in the whole blossom already in March.
Bowels of the earth of the valley are a real depository of the minerals.
On the outskirts of the oasis and in the surrounding mountains rich deposits of oil, coal and gas, iron, copper and polymetallic ores, antimony, sulfur, mercury, building sand, limestone, rock salt were found.
It is impossible to overestimate the role of the Ferghana valley in the history and culture of Central Asia. It is known that information about the state of Davan, located in this oasis, was already included in the very first Chinese chronicles. From them it becomes clear that this was a rich, economically strong country with a highly developed agriculture, livestock and crafts. Relatively little number of population living in cities and towns (about 70), was actually managed by a board of elders, at its discretion, displacing older and appointed new governors.
Inhabitants, living in the country, were mainly engaged in agriculture, specializing in the cultivation of wheat, rice and alfalfa. Viticulture and Winemaking of the locals of the valley were famous far beyond its borders too. A special point of the economy was horse breeding, the well-known Davan "argamaks” were very in a great demand at the court of the Emperor of China.
Later, in the Middle Ages, the valley became one of the leading region of Movarounnahr.
The traces of the ancient settlements and medieval monuments still keep reminding to the descendants of the glorious past of the Ferghana Valley.
In the XVIII-XIX-th centuries the oasis was the core of the Kokand Khanate. In 1876 year it was annexed by the Russian Empire.
Since 1924 year Ferghana region became the part of the Uzbek SSR.
The Ferghana Valley of nowadays consists of three regions of Uzbekistan: Andijan, Ferghana and Namangan, as well as small areas of neighboring countries - Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.
In Uzbekistan, it is considered to be the most populous district, the territory of which is a home to nearly a third of the total population of the whole country.
The bulk of the inhabitants, as it was before, is engaged in agriculture. Irrigated lands are cultivated for crops of cotton and rice.  A great demand of arable crops, abundant gardens, orchards, plantations and vineyards are located in the foothills. The  desert plains are used for a whole year-round grazing of livestock.
Ferghana valley is rightly proud of its famous cities, even the names of which sound like a magical music from the "Thousand and One Nights”: Andijan, Ferghana, Margilan, Namangan, Kokand, Shakhimardan etc.
And despite the glaring signs of civilization, the grateful people still honor the customs and traditions of their ancestors of the outgoing centuries, carefully preserving the memory of the history and culture of cities and regions, disintegrated throughout the Ferghana valley like precious pearls on a warm hand of the blessed region.


Namangan is the second largest city in Uzbekistan, one of the glorious cities of Ferghana Valley. It is located in the northern part to 200 kilometers from Tashkent city. Namangan is situated at an altitude of 476 meters above a sea level and is used to be the administrative center of the Namangan region. This city has a population of 450 thousand inhabitants. The first information about Namangan refers …

Ferghana city

The city of a remarkable beauty, named Ferghana is located on the southern edge of the Ferghana Valley, with a distance of 420 kilometers from the capital and 75 kilometers to the west of Andijan city, at an altitude of 580 meters above a sea level. There are no any ancient monuments, religious places and sites of pilgrimage in this city. Generally, Ferghana is a relatively young town. In 2007 year …


Shakhimardan is a fabulously beautiful place. It is hard to find a prettier area throughout the Ferghana Valley, and Uzbekistan in the whole. Located 55 kilometers to the south from Ferghana at an altitude of 1500 meters above a sea level, the town is conveniently situated in a valley on the northern slopes of the Alai Range. On two sides it is washed by the mountain rivers named Ok-su and Kok-su, …


Andijan is considered to be one of the oldest towns in the Ferghana Valley. It is located in the south-eastern part of it, on the bank of the ancient river named Andijansay. A distance from the capital of Republic – the city of Tashkent is 447 kilometers; the altitude above sea level is 450meters. The climate of this area is continental, thus, average temperatures in July are used to be +28 C, …

Rishtan city

Rishtan city is widely known as one of the jewels of the Ferghana Valley. The city is located 50 kilometers from the Ferghana and Kokand cities. Until 1977 year it was a small town which situated twelve kilometers from the railway line, called Kujbyshevo village. Today, it is quite a modern city with a population of 22,580 people and also is the administrative center of the eponymous district. Rishtan, …

Ferghana Valley. Pearl deposit of Uzbekistan. - Marghilan


Margilan is one of the ancient cities of Uzbekistan, which is located in the south - eastern part of the Ferghana valley, in a 15 kilometers distance to the north of Ferghana, and 85 kilometers from Kokand. The city lies at the foothills of the Alai Range at an altitude of 475 meters above a sea level. The area of Margilan is 50 square kilometers and the population is 200 thousand people. What is …

Ferghana Valley. Pearl deposit of Uzbekistan. - Kokand


Kokand is considered to be one of the most iconic cities in Uzbekistan. It is located in the southwest of the Fergana valley, 100 kilometers from the administrative center of the city of Fergana. Being situated in the lower reaches of the Soh River at an altitude of 405 meters above a sea level, Kokand is the second largest city in the Ferghana Valley, with an area at 65 square kilometers and a population …


A small town in the Ferghana region of Uzbekistan, located about 20 kilometers from the regional center, the city of Ferghana. Just like a lot of other cities in the Ferghana Valley, it has a very advanced age. Even until nowadays the exact date of the foundation of the city failed to be definited. However, now archaeological surveys are being held in the city and perhaps we will be able to discover …